English Paper for Geology







Created by:

Dian Khristianto S. (H1F007001)

Nopan Kaseja (H1F007002)

Iyul Yulianto (H1F007003)

Ade Akhyar N. (H1F007016)

Candra A. (H1F007025)














What is Geology?

From etymology (Greek) consist of two words, is geo and logos. Definition of geo is the earth, logos is science (knowledge). So that definition of geology is a knowledge that studies about indications from forming the earth, the existence of earth, and the other phenomenon that relation with nature form.

Because geology describe some aspects that relation with earth science, so the matter that research to be very complex. For study it, we should do classify from the contexts that will we study later.

Generally, the context is formulated in the form of this knowledge classification:

A. Geochemistry (geology – chemistry)

The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earth’s chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.

The most important fields of geochemistry are:

1. Isotope geochemistry: Determination of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the earth and on earth’s surface.

2. Examination of the distribution and movements of elements in different parts of the earth (crust, mantle, hydrosphere etc.) and in minerals with the goal to determine the underlying system of distribution and movement.

3. Cosmochemistry: Analysis of the distribution of elements and their isotopes in the cosmos .

4. Organic geochemistry: A study of the role of processes and compounds that are derived from living or once-living organisms.

5. Applications to environmental, hydrological and mineral exploration studies.

B. Environmental geology (geology – environmental science)

Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is a multidisciplinary field of applied science and is closely related to engineering geology and somewhat related to environmental geography. They all involve the study of the interaction of humans with the geologic environment including the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and to some extent the atmosphere,. It includes:

· managing geological and hydrogeological resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, water (surface and ground water), and land use.

· defining and mitigating exposure of natural hazards on humans

· managing industrial and domestic waste disposal and minimizing or eliminating effects of pollution, and

· performing associated activities, often involving litigation.

C. Geological engineering (geology – engineering)

Geological engineering is the engineering science of applying engineering principles to the study of geological materials as part of the engineering design of facilities including roads, tunnels, and mines especially as related to minerals and mineral products. Some see it as a merging of the disciplines of geology and engineering and materials science, but, while it includes aspects of all, it has several specializations unique to the field.

Geological engineers are particularly prized in the field of mining, including the fields of mine development, exploration, and operation. Geological engineers conduct slope stability analyses, and design remediation for unstable slopes including landslides for mining concerns and civil engineering projects. They are involved in both civil and mining tunneling projects. Some geological engineers choose to specialize instead on geotechnical or environmental aspects of the field.

D. Economic geology (geology – economy)

Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be utilized for economic and/or industrial purposes. These materials include precious and base metals, nonmetallic minerals, construction-grade stone, petroleum minerals, coal, and water. The term commonly refers to metallic mineral deposits and mineral resources. The techniques employed by other earth science disciplines (such as geochemistry, mineralogy, geophysics, and structural geology) might all be used to understand, describe, and exploit an ore deposit.

Economic geology is studied by and practised by geologists, however it is of prime interest to investment bankers, stock analysts and other professions such as engineers, environmental scientists and conservationists because of the far-reaching impact which extractive industries have upon society, the economy and the environment.

Example from economic material:

1. Mineral resource

2. Ore geology

3. Coal and petroleum geology

E. Hydrogeology (geology – hydrology)

Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth’s crust, (commonly in aquifers). The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably. Some make the minor distinction between a hydrologist or engineer applying themselves to geology (geohydrology), and a geologist applying themselves to hydrology (hydrogeology).

Hydrogeology (like most earth sciences) is an interdisciplinary subject; it can be difficult to account fully for the chemical, physical, biological and even legal interactions between soil, water, nature and society. The study of the interaction between groundwater movement and geology can be quite complex. Groundwater does not always flow in the subsurface down-hill following the surface topography; groundwater follows pressure gradients (flow from high pressure gradient to low) often following fractures and conduits in circuitous paths. Taking into account the interplay of the different facets of a multi-component system often requires knowledge in several diverse fields at both the experimental and theoretical levels. This being said, the following is a more traditional (reductionist viewpoint) introduction to the methods and nomenclature of saturated subsurface hydrology, or simply hydrogeology.

F. Agrogeology (geology – agricultural science)

Agrogeology is the study of minerals of importance to farming and horticulture, especially with regards to soil fertility and fertilizer components. These minerals are usually essential plant nutrients and are referred to as agrominerals.

Those who specialize in agrogeology are termed agrogeologists.

A course on agrogeology has been established at the University of Guelph by Professor Peter van Straaten of the Land Resource Science department.

G. Geophysics (geology – physics)

Geophysics, a branch of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. The theories and techniques of geophysics are employed extensively in the planetary sciences in general.

H. Paleontology (geology – biology)

Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, “ancient”; ontos, “being”; and logos, “knowledge”) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised faeces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Studies of prehistoric hominins, their culture and their behaviour are the purview of two other disciplines, archaeology and paleoanthropology.

I. Geomythology (myth – geology)

Geomythology is the study of alleged referencees to geological events in mythology. The term was coined in 1968 by Dorothy Vitaliano, a geologist at Indiana University.

“Geomythology indicates every case in which the origin of myths and legends can be shown to contain references to geological phenomena and aspects, in a broad sense including astronomical ones (comets, eclipses, meteor impacts, etc.). As indicated by Vitaliano (1973) ‘primarily, there are two kinds of geologic folklore, that in which some geologic feature or the occurrence of some geologic phenomenon has inspired a folklore explanation, and that which is the garbled explanation of some actual geologic event, usually a natural catastrophe’.

The claim is that oral traditions about nature are often expressed in mythological language and may contain genuine and perceptive natural knowledge based on careful observation of physical evidence. Geomythology alleges to provide valuable information about past earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, fossil discoveries, and other events, which are otherwise scientifically unknown or difficult to trace.

To be distinguished from this are plainly aitiological tales that account for geological features without any connection to their formation; an example is the Native American legend of a giant bear chasing a couple who were saved when the land rose beneath their feet; the bear’s claws left gouge marks on the sides of the uplift known today as Devil’s Tower, Wyoming.

In August 2004, the 32nd International Geological Congress held a session on “Myth and Geology”, which resulted in the first peer-reviewed collection of papers on the subject (2007).

J. Geoarchaeology (geology – archaeology)

Geoarchaeology is a sub-field of archaeology which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography and other earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought.

Geoarchaeologists study the natural physical processes that affect archaeological sites such as geomorphology, the formation of sites through geological processes and the effects on buried sites and artifacts post-deposition.

Geoarchaeologists’ work frequently involves studying soil and sediments as well as other geographical concepts to contribute an archaeological study

K. Geologic Modeling (Geology – Design graphics)

Geologic modelling (or modeling) is the applied science of creating computerized representations of portions of the Earth’s crust, especially oil and gas fields and groundwater aquifers. In the oil and gas industry, realistic geologic models are required as input to reservoir simulator programs, which predict the behavior of the rocks under various hydrocarbon recovery scenarios. An actual reservoir can only be developed and produced once, and mistakes can be tragic and wasteful. Using reservoir simulation allows reservoir engineers to identify which recovery options offer the safest and most economic, efficient, and effective development plan for a particular reservoir.

Geologic modelling is a relatively recent subdiscipline of geology which integrates structural geology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis.

In 2 dimensions a geologic formation or unit is represented by a polygon, which can be bounded by faults, unconformities or by its lateral extent, or crop. In geological models a geological unit is bounded by 3-dimensional triangulated or gridded surfaces. The equivalent to the mapped polygon is the fully enclosed geological unit, using a triangulated mesh. For the purpose of property or fluid modelling these volumes can be separated further into an array of cells, often referred to as voxels combining the word volumetric and pixel. These 3D grids are the equivalent to 2D grids used to express properties of single surfaces.

Geology can be a very interesting and rewarding career. The minimum training required is a college degree in geology. Pre-college students who are interested in becoming a geologist should take college preparatory courses in earth science, biology, chemistry, physics and math. Courses related to writing, environmental science, computers, geography and mapping are also valuable.

Geologists work in a variety of settings which include: natural resource companies, environmental consulting companies, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and universities. Many geologists do field work at least part of the time. Others spend their time in laboratories, classrooms or offices. All geologists prepare reports, do calculations and use computers. Although a bachelor’s degree is required for entry level employment, many geologists earn masters and/or doctorate degrees. The advanced degrees provide a higher level of training, often in a geology specialty area such as paleontology, mineralogy, hydrology or volcanology. Advanced degrees will often qualify the geologist for supervisory positions, research assignments or teaching positions at the university level. These are some of the most desirable jobs in the field of geology.

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